is to
Apr 11 2015
(Original) Photographs by Getty Images
Curt Schilling
Well, the rest of your life up to
the point when you are
diagnosed with cancer. I get
what you’re thinking. You’re 16
— you’re invincible, just like all
your buddies. If you were to
jump ahead 33 years, you
couldn’t write a better dream
than the one your life is going
to be.
Dear 16-year-old Curt,
Tomorrow at lunch, a kid is going to dare
you to take a dip of Copenhagen. If you
say yes, like I did, you’ll be addicted for
the rest of your life.
Nicotine and the Developing Human:
A Neglected Element in the Electronic Cigarette Debate
Published Online: March 16, 2015           - or -  

With Thanks to: Karen Zielaski, Project Manager, Consultant,, 480.678.3869
No Smoking Including E-cigarettes and All Other Electronic Smoking Devices
E-Cigarettes Extinguished in
Montgomery County
Posted: 03/03/2015, 01:30pm | NBC Washington                                           Sun Times
An e-cigarette looks like a cigarette, works like a cigarette, and now -- like a traditional cigarette -- it's banned in Montgomery County.
The Montgomery County Council unanimously approved Bill 56-14 on Tuesday, banning the use of e-cigarettes in public places where traditional
cigarette smoking is banned.
The bill will now move to Montgomery County Executive
Ike Leggett for approval; it will go into effect 91 days after
he signs it.
If the bill becomes law, smoking e-cigars, e-hookahs, e-
pipes and vape pens would also be illegal in the same
places where smoking traditional cigarettes is banned.
The bill also bans retail outlets from selling certain liquid
nicotine or liquid nicotine containers unless they are in
packaging that makes it difficult for children to get into.
While e-cigarettes do not produce tobacco smoke, they do
contain nicotine and other potentially harmful chemicals,
according to the council.
“Perhaps swayed by the belief that electronic cigarettes are
safe [...] teens who have never tried traditional cigarettes
are using e-cigs, putting themselves at risk for nicotine
addiction, nicotine poisoning or exposure to harmful
chemicals. I am not willing to gamble with the health of
our current generation of young people by waiting for
federal regulations,” said Councilmember Nancy Floreen.
Only a few states have extended their tobacco laws to
cover e-cigarettes. New Jersey, North Dakota and Utah
have specifically prohibited the use of e-cigarettes in
public places and work places, the council said.
With the approval of this bill, Montgomery follows several
counties in the quest to crack down on e-cigarettes.
Vanishing Y Chromosomes
A new study reveals an association between smoking and rates of Y chromosome loss in blood
cells, which may explain elevated cancer risk among male smokers.
By Molly Sharlach |
December 4, 2014
Decades of epidemiological data demonstrate that men have higher overall cancer rates than women. This difference in risk is more than four-fold
for some types of cancer, but the reasons for the disparity remain mostly mysterious.

In an investigation of blood samples from more than 1,000 men, scientists at Uppsala University in Sweden and their colleagues found that those
with higher rates of chromosome Y loss tended to die younger and were more susceptible to a variety of cancers. Now, some of the same
researchers have shown that smoking behavior is strongly linked to the loss of the Y chromosome—a relatively common occurrence. The results,
reported today (December 4) in Science, suggest a mechanism for the increased risk of many cancers observed in male smokers compared to
female smokers.

This work “provides an interesting hypothesis for a biological mechanism that could contribute to the sex ratio in cancer,” said cancer
epidemiologist Ellen Chang of the Stanford School of Medicine who was not involved in the study. “It certainly doesn’t provide a definitive
answer,” she added. “It’s more of a hypothesis.”

To explore potential causes for the loss of the Y chromosome, Uppsala’s Jan Dumanski, Lars Forsberg, and their colleagues examined the blood
samples and medical records of 6,000 Swedish men from three independent cohorts. They used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array
analysis to quantify the loss of the Y chromosome (LOY) in blood cells, and then tested for associations between LOY rates and factors such as age,
education level, exercise habits, smoking, and cholesterol levels.

“We analyzed many, many different potential confounders, but smoking was sticking out,” said Forsberg. “In all three cohorts, we see an
independent effect: that smokers have more loss of Y in their blood compared to nonsmokers.”
In two of the groups, the team was able to compare LOY levels in men
who were current smokers to LOY levels in those who had quit. Strikingly, they found that former smokers had LOY rates similar to those of men
who had never smoked. Further, data on smoking frequency suggested that occasional smokers experienced less LOY than heavier smokers, added

The researchers hypothesize that the loss of the Y chromosome may give cells a “proliferative advantage” due to the elimination of important
regulators—an idea consistent with recent evidence that the Y chromosome contains tumor suppressor genes. While LOY in blood cells may
reflect this process in many cell types, it is also possible that specific cancer-fighting abilities are compromised in immune cells that lack the Y

In a small experiment, the researchers sorted blood cells from three 91-year-old cancer-free members of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult
Men, which was initiated in 1970. This analysis showed low levels of LOY in CD4+ T cells, which participate in cancer immunosurveillance, but
higher LOY rates in other cell types. Forsberg said his team is working to obtain samples from a larger group of men to follow up on this finding.

While the underlying molecular links between smoking, LOY, and cancer remain unclear, this work contributes to “a rising tide of respect for and
interest in the Y chromosome and its role in human biology and health and disease,” said David Page, an expert on sex chromosome biology and
the director of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts. “The publication of this paper in a high-profile
journal is symptomatic of that.” Until recently, Page added, scientists believed the Y chromosome contributed only to sex determination and male
fertility, but “it’s now plausible that loss of the Y chromosome could have consequences in every nook and cranny of the body.”

J.P. Dumanski et al., “Smoking is associated with mosaic loss of chromosome Y,” Science, doi:10.1126/science.1262092, 2014.
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